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  • a huge country
  • 260 million people
  • consists of 50 states
  • capital Washington
  • in the USA you can _ every kind of weather and _ countryside
The USA has also symbols or sights and here are some of them
  • Hollywood
  • Disney Land
  • the Grand Canyon
  • the Golden Gate Bridge
  • the Everglades
  • and the Rocky Mountains.
New York
  • seven million people
  • New York lies at the mouth of the Hudson River
  • The city consists of five boroughs: Queens, the Bronx, Brooklyn, Staten Island and Manhattan
  • And now I tell you more about Brooklyn the New York borough
  • Brooklyn has a population of 2.25 million and its the largest of the New York boroughs
  • Brooklyn has its own harbour, its own beaches and some of New York's finest buildings and parks
  • But New York is a city of contrasts it has also problems like crime, poverty homeless people, dirty streets and subways
  • At last I tell you more about the history of New York
  • The first people on Manhattan were primitive Indians
  • In sixteen ten, the Dutch people bought Manhattan and called it New Amsterdam
  • Then came the| English and took the city
  • Of course ,you know the new name of the city it's New York
Holidays and history of the USA
  • And now I tell you more about the history of the United States of America
  • The first people in America were the Vikings, they sailed from Greenland to North America
  • The first European people in America was Christopher Columbus but he was looking for a sea route to India and not to America
  • Till is dead he thought he was in India
  • That's the reason that he gave the native Americans the name Indians
  • The first English settlers landed in Virginia in 1607
  • The Indians helped them with food and the settlers thanked them with the dead
  • Later, England had thirteen colonies along the east cost
  • In 1773 started a Rebellion against England because the taxes were high, England was getting richer and not the colonies
  • The colonies won, because their leader was George Washington and the German General Friedrich von Steuber gave them weapons and soldiers
  • In 1783 England officially surrendered
  • Detroit is often called Motor City because it's the centre of American automobile industry
  • But the most people call Detroit Chocolate City because over 60% of Detroit's population is black
  • Detroit is the sixth largest city in the USA and one of the greatest industrial centres in the world
  • It's situated in the north of the US and it's the only city in the USA where you can look south into Canada
  • is often called the "Wheat State" or the "breadbasket of the nation" because much of the land is flat and covered with wheatfields
  • In the summer it looks like a huge sea of gold and the imported thing about Kansas that you can get the driver's licence with sixteen
  • That was all about Kansas, now I tell you something about the school system in the USA
  • In the United States they don't have different kinds of schools
  • All student's go to the nearest school in the neighbourhood and they have the same timetable every day
The Statue of Liberty
  • Hello I am your Tourist Guide for the next ten minutes
  • right side _ Statue of Liberty
  • a present from France
  • Miss Liberty _ built by Mr. Bartholdy and by Mr. Eifel in eighteen-eighty-four in Paris
  • was cut into smaller pieces _ put in over two hundred boxes
  • sailed across the Atlantic for a month _ arrived at New York Harbour
  • a symbol freedom and of New York
  • meter high and she weights 225 tones
  • we are at the end of the tour _ enjoyed it
  • under the statue is a museum there you can look at the history of the statue again
  • I wish you good trip

  • Is a part of the UK
  • In N. or Ulster is the other name live 1.6 million people
  • 25% of them are Catholics
  • 58% of them are Protestants
  • You can see that there are two different religions in N.
  • And I hope it's clear that there are troubles between these religions
  • Later you'll get more information's about these troubles
  • the capital is Belfast with a population of three hundred thousand inhabitants
  • there is a cathedral and an important port
  • My special topic today is the history and the conflicts in N.
  • In 1921 Ireland became independent, but N. were a part of Great Britain
  • Since this separation the Catholic minority fights for political, social and economic equality in N. and for the connection at Ireland
  • Ireland helps them to reach this
  • They are represent by:
  • SDLP(Social Democratic and Labour Party)
  • IRA(Irish Republican Army forbidden and militant)
  • The protestants represent:
  • UDA(Ulster Defence Association)
  • Orangemen (German: Oranier Orden)
  • UUP(Ulster Unionist Party)
  • These organisations fight against each other
  • Since 1969 are these fights like a civil-war
  • In 1972 sends the British Government 13.000 soldiers to N.
  • And took the direct control
  • Start of 1975 there was a series of bomb assassinations of the IRA also in London
  • In 1994 was a temporarily cease-fire
  • One year later were talks about the independence of N.
  • But the talks were interrupted by assassinations
  • Today we have a historical peace-agreement for Northern Ireland that said that Northern Ireland has it's own parliament and so it's nearly independent
  • The peacemaker was the US man George Mitchell
  • He talks with the conflict partners about 32 hours and he was successful with it
  • The people in Northern Ireland have new hope
  • John Hume the boss of the SDLP and David Trimple the boss of the UUP both got the Peace Nobel prize for their policy of peace in Oslo
  • More than 3500 people died in this conflict
  • At last I give you some reasons for the conflict:
  • misunderstandings between Protestants and Catholics
  • discrimination of the Catholics
  • better jobs for the Protestants
  • and so more unemployed Catholics
  • ignorance and prejudices
  • the violence is a result of radical groups fighting each other

  • First Introduction about United Kingdom
  • UK small compared other countries
  • Population 58 million
  • One third of UK population in south east of England
  • In UK Britain and Northern Ireland
  • But main topic that's Scotland
  • Capital is Edinburgh on south east coast
  • live 5.2 million people
  • size is seventy nine square kilometres
  • famous for beautiful countryside
  • ex. the Highlands loneliest and wildest parts
  • because of little vegetation and high mountains
  • most industry in the south / flatter land there good for farming
  • in the north oil industry / work on oil rigs that in north sea
  • some tourist attractions
  • ski resorts high mountains
  • Loch Ness
  • Highland Games over thousand years old Competition tossing the caber
  • Isle of Skye the largest and most beautiful of 800 islands
  • Last history of Scotland
  • 400 AD Celtic tribes build there a first settlement
  • 80 BD Romans came to England
  • 9. Century Vikings conquered the north of Scotland
  • 1286 English were in big part's
  • 1707 Scotland and England became one country the UK of Great Britain
  • independence trend's of Scottish people
  • 1745 Charles Stuart led an army against England
  • The English defeated them easily

General facts
  • capital: Canberra
  • area: 7,7 mill. kmē
  • population: 18,1 mill.
  • Olympic games 2000
  • commonwealth of federal states
  • New South Wales (Sydney)
  • Queensland
  • Victoria
  • Western Australia
  • South Australia
  • Tasmania
  • multicultural Country
  • 26. January Australia Day
  • most important industry is mining and agriculture
  • highest mountain: Mount Kosciusko (2228m)
  • Aborigines came 60000 years ago
  • In the 16th century ca. 500000 Aborigines lived there
  • 1st discoverers of Australia were Arabians and Chinese
  • in Europe it was supposed that there must be a great land and they called it: Terra incognita Australis
Spain and Portugal
  • 15th the Portuguese performed tests to discover Australia
  • very difficult (Passats winds)
  • 16th and 17th century Spanish ships sailed from Peru towards Australia and discovered the Salomon Islands
  • this encouraged and they sended new expeditions (1595,1605); both were not successful
  • controlled Indonesia (Bantam, Batavia)
  • better ships
  • 1606 William Janszon sailed through the passage of Torres and saw North coast of Cape York
  • October 1616 1st European set a foot on Australian earth (Dirk Hartog, Shark Bay)
  • Dutchmen mapped long coastlines and performed 1st interior expeditions
  • 1642 Abel Janszon Tasman discovered Tasmania and named it after the governor of Indonesia Van Diemen?s Land
  • Dutchman didn?t claim the land, reason: not interesting
  • 1st Englishmen in Britain was William Dampier
  • 1768 James Cook started an Expedition
  • 1770 he claimed the land around Possession Island, name: New South Wales
  • 1786 the British government decided to settle Australia and ordered to Arthur Phillip to claim the Western Part of Australia
  • 1787 1st fleet started towards the new land (759 prisoners, 211 Marines)
  • 26 January 1788 1st settlement at Port Jackson: Sydney
  • Arthur Phillip became governor
  • Problem: famine -> forced Aborigines to leave the riverside of Hawkesbury and founded farms
  • Furthermore they got food from Norfolk Island (Island where mutineers of Bounty lived)
  • 1792 the Royal marines were substituted by the New South Wales Corps -> became good farmers -> produced rum -> illegal trade with rum
  • next two governors couldn?t control the trade with rum
  • 1806 governor William Bligh (captain of the Bounty) threatened the NSWC that they would loose their land -> 26. January 1808 rum rebellion (leader was John McArthur) -> Bligh was no longer governor
  • new governor: Lachlan McQuarie -> conditions got better (infrastructure, hospitals, churches)
  • prisoners want to have more rights and got them
  • 1823 a provisional parliament was founded
  • 1827 Britain claimed whole Australia
  • 1829 area around Sydney (300 km) was inhabited ,name: Nineteen counties, sheep breeding became most important industry
  • in the later 20?s till the 80?s 5 more were founded
  • South Australia july 1837 (Adelaide)
  • 1851 Victoria (Melbourne)
  • 1859 Queensland (Brisbane)
  • Tasmania
  • Western Australia
Gold rush
  • April 1851 gold was found at Summer Hill Creek (NSW)
  • 1861 gold export of 124 mill. pounds
1850 1861
400000 people 1200000 people
Political development
  • rivalry between the colonies -> the union of the 6 colonies was very late
  • 1901 federation of Australia, reasons:
  • fear of enemy invasion
  • better economical co-operation
  • 1911 Canberra became capital
  • 1st World War: 330000 (60000, 165 were injured)
  • 25 April 1915 ANZAC troops to defeat the Turks -> ANZAC Day
  • 1928 the economy crisis deeply hurt Australia
  • 2nd World War helped Britain till 1941
  • after they allied with USA to defeat Japan
  • founding members of UN
  • on the side of USA during the Vietcong
  • 1967 Aborigines got full citizens rights
  • 1976 Aboriginal Land Rights Act : Aborigines got their Land back